Non conventional energy sources book pdf


    NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES - Welcome to ethesis - ethesis The book «s unique for its coverage of all types of questions A Modern PDF | On Oct 13, , and others published Non Conventional Energy Resources Book. Non-conventional energy. – Seasonal variations and availability. Renewable energy – sources and features. Hybrid energy systems Distributed energy systems.

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    Non Conventional Energy Sources Book Pdf

    NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY RESOURCES. N K BANSAL. Vikas Publishing. ; pages; Paperback; " x " inches; Book This is to certify that the project report titled "Non Conventional Energy Sources" submitted by. Naval Singh, Roll No. , in fulfillment of the requirements. Non-Conventional Energy Resources. By B H Khan. About this book · Shop for Books on Google Play. Browse the world's largest eBookstore and start reading.

    Describe production of biogas in detail. Ans: Biogas is produced by the breakdown of organic waste by bacteria without oxygen anaerobic digestion or fermentation. Leftover food from houses, shops, restaurants and factories. Biogas is made by fermenting organic waste in a biogas digester. Ans All renewable energy except tidal and geothermal power , ultimately comes from the sun. The earth receives 1. About one or 2 percent of this energy is converted to wind energy which is about times more than the energy converted to biomass by all plants on earth. Differential heating of the earths surface and atmosphere induces vertical and horizontal air currents that are affected by the earths rotation and contours of the land WIND. Winds are influenced by the ground surface at altitudes up to meter. Wind is slowed by the surface roughness and obstacles. When dealing with wind energy, we are concerned with surface winds. A wind turbine obtains its power input by converting the force of the wind into a torque turning force acting on the rotor blades. The amount of energy which the wind transfers to the rotor depends on the density of the air, the rotor area, and the wind speed. The kinetic energy of a moving body is proportional to its mass or weight. The kinetic energy in the wind thus depends on the density of the air, i.

    The most important reason is the stability of the turbine. A rotor with an odd number of rotor blades and at least three blades can be considered to be similar to a disc when calculating the dynamic properties of the machine.

    A rotor with an even number of blades will give stability problems for a machine with a stiff structure. The reason is that at the very moment when the uppermost blade bends backwards, because it gets the maximum power from the wind, the lowermost blade passes into the wind shade in front of the tower. Ans: A Windmill captures wind energy and then uses a generator to convert it to electrical energy.

    The Wind power generators convert wind energy mechanical energy to electrical energy. The generator is attached at one end to the wind turbine, which provides the mechanical energy. At the other end, the generator is connected to the electrical grid. The generator needs to have a cooling system to make sure there is no overheating. They are less Less efficient. If you fit a large wind turbine rotor with a small generator it will be producing electricity during many hours of the year, but it will capture only a small part of the energy content of the wind at high wind speeds.

    A windmill built so that it too severely interrupts the airflow through its cross section will reduce the effective wind velocity at its location and divert much of the airflow around itself, thus not extracting the maximum power from the wind. At the other extreme, a windmill that intercepts a small fraction of the wind passing through its cross section will reduce the winds velocity by only a small amount, thus extracting only a small fraction of the power from the wind traversing the windmill disk.

    Non Convential Energy Source 27 For free study notes log on: www. What is meant for tidal power and what are the causes of it? Ans: The Tidal power facilities harness the energy, from the rise and fall of tides. Tidal energy is also called tidal power and it is considered a clean renewable energy because during its transformation no pollutant substances are produced.

    It is a form of hydropower that takes profit from the energy of tides and with the help of an alternator it is possible to transform it into electricity or other useful forms of power.

    It is quite interesting to explain that tides are produced by the Sun and the Moon in combination with Earths rotation movement, as shown is the figure n1. All of them interact via gravitational forces. This is what tidal energy generators use to produce energy.

    There are Two types of tidal plant facilities. Tidal barrages Tidal current turbines Ideal sites are located at narrow channels and experience high variation in high and low tides.

    The Gravitational pull of the sun and moon and the pull of the centrifugal force of rotation of the earth-moon system. When a landmass lines up with the earth-moon system, the water around it is at high tide. When a landmass is at 90 to the earth-moon system, the water around it is at low tide. There are two high tides and two low tides during each period of rotation of the earth. The Spring and Neap tides depend on the orientation of the sun, moon, and the earth.

    Most parts of the country have about sunny days. Thus there is tremendous solar potential. When sun rays fall on the earth, its surface gets heated up and as a consequence unevenly winds are formed. Kinetic energy in the wind can be used to run wind turbines but the output power depends on the wind speed. Turbines generally require a wind in the range 5.

    In practice relatively few land areas have significant prevailing winds. Otherwise Wind power is one of the most cost competitive renewable today and this has been the most rapidly-growing means of electricity generation at the turn of the21st century and provides a complement to large-scale base-load power stations. Its long-term technical potential is believed 5 times current global energy consumption or 40 times current electricity demand.

    Non-conventional energy sources

    Since water is about a thousand times heavier than air is, even a slow flowing stream of water can yield great amounts of energy. Tidal power, which captures energy from the tides in horizontal direction. Tides come in, raise water levels in a basin, and tides roll out.

    The water is made to pass through a turbine to get out of the basin. Wave power, which uses the energy in waves. The waves will usually make large pontoons go up and down in the water. The wave power is also hard to tap.

    Hydroelectric energy is therefore the only viable option. However, even probably this option is also not there with the developed nations for future energy production, because most major sites within these nations with the potential for harnessing gravity in this way are either already being exploited or are unavailable for other reasons such as environmental considerations.

    On the other side, large hydro potential of millions of megawatts is available with the developing countries of the world but major bottleneck in the way of development of these large Hydro projects is that each site calls for huge investment.

    Quantitatively small volumes of water, with large falls in hills and quantitatively not too large volumes of water, with small falls such that of canals , can be tapped.

    The force of the flowing and falling water is used to run water turbines to generate energy. This requires that the hot rock be relatively shallow, so it is site - specific and can only be applied in geologically active areas.

    Even otherwise, on most of the globe, the temperature of the crust a few feet below the surface is buffered to a constant 7- 14 degree Celsius, so a liquid can be pre-heated or pre-cooled in underground pipelines, providing free cooling in the summer and heating in the winter by using a heat pump. The easiest way to release this energy is by burning the dried up plants.

    Non-Conventional Energy Resources - B H Khan - Google Books

    Solid biomass such as firewood or combustible field crops including dried manure is actually burnt to heat water and to drive turbines. Field crops may be grown specifically for combustion or may be used for other purposes and the processed plant waste then used for combustion. Most sorts of biomass, including Sugarcane residue, wheat chaff, corn cobs and other plant matter can be, and is, burnt quite successfully. A drawback is that all biomass needs to go through some of these steps: it needs to be grown, collected, dried, fermented and burned.

    All of these steps require resources and an infrastructure.

    A 4X kW 1. Typically biofuel is burned to release its stored chemical energy. Biomass, can be used directly as fuel or to produce liquid biofuel.

    Non-Conventional Energy Resources

    Agriculturally produced biomass fuels, such as biodiesel, ethanol, and bagasse often a by-product of sugarcane cultivation can be burned in internal combustion engines or boilers. It has an established potential of 3, MW of power generation. Biogas production has the capacity to provide us with about half of our energy needs, either burned for electrical productions or piped into current gas lines for use.

    It just has to be done and made a priority.

    Though about 3. Basil Blackwell, Oxford. Hardback f This involved and prolix style is a great pity, for the author is a keen observer who has been given exceptional facilities by ICI over a period of eight years to make a study of its managerial practices.

    I Pergamon Press. Printed 9, No. He has some interesting things to say, but he would have done better to have said them within half the length and have adopted a more generally comprehensible style. This apart, for those with stamina to stay the course this is an informative study of internal struggles within an old-fashioned ICI to adopt modern managerial techniques largely on the American pattern: according to the author, the Company took little note of Japanese or European practice.

    Although it is necessarily a subjective study, much of it based on discussions with individuals who all appear under concerned, pseudonyms, it contains a good deal of basic statistical information in conveniently tabulated form. It must be emphasised that this is in no sense a history of ICI over the past twenty years - analogous to W.

    Trevor I.

    Edited by 0. Barut, A. Cambridge University Press. Paperback f In his Goetingen Lecture, which was recorded, Rutherford said that he was confident that nature was simple, being a simple man himself.

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