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De Grip, A. The economics of skills obsolescence: a review. In: de Grip, A. The economics of skills obsolescence: theoretical innovations and empirical applications. Research in labour economics. Bingley: Emerald, Vol. Department for Education and Skills Skillsbase: labour market information database[online]. ETF — European training foundation Glossary of labour market terms and standard and curriculum development terms. Turin: ETF. European Environment Agency EEA multilingual environmental glossary[online].
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Resolution concerning updating the international standard classification of occupations ISCO Standardisation and related activities: general vocabulary. Geneva: ISO. Jenson, Jane Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research Networks. Knowles, M. Self-directed learning.
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OECD Assessing and certifying occupational skills and competences in vocational education and training. Paris: OECD.
The well-being of nations: the role of human and social capital. Ohlsson, S. Declarative and procedural knowledge. In: Postlethwaite, T. The international encyclopedia of education.
Oxford: Pergamon, Vol. Polanyi, M. The tacit dimension. London: Routledge. Prawat, R. Promoting access to knowledge, strategy, and disposition in students: a research synthesis. Review of education, Vol. Scottish executive What is employability?
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Unesco Unesco thesaurus. Additionally, asking the child or adolescent to recount the trauma on various occasions and in different ways can cause further psychological damage Brito and Pereira, BRITO, L.
Psico-USF, Itatiba, v. In conceptual terms, we consider a child to be under twelve years and an adolescent to be between twelve and eighteen years, according to Law 8. The possible definitions of sexual abuse include a wide spectrum of possibilities.
The definition we use here is that of forcing or encouraging a child or adolescent to take part in sexual activities, whether they are conscious or not of what is happening. The activities can involve physical contact, including penetrative acts, for example rape or sodomy, penetrating the anus or the rectal opening with the fingers and non-penetrative acts. It can include non-contact activities, such as taking the child to view or produce pornographic material or view sexual activity, or encouraging them to behave in a sexually inappropriate way Sanderson, SANDERSON, C.
Books do Brasil, Such situations occur predominantly in the domestic environment, especially during childhood. These situations concern the involvement of a child who is not able to give mature consent, in sexual activities that violate social taboos and family roles Furniss, FURNISS, T.
Despite the complexity and importance of the topic in the debates surrounding fundamental child protection, studies within the healthcare field which address the interrogation of children and adolescents are only just beginning.
After reading, we identified that three of these were on the subject of interrogation, all relating to children and adolescents. The question of interrogating the victim rarely considers their specific needs, so studies focusing on preventing rights violations in the interrogation of victims, through a review of related studies or criminal processes, are of particular interest.
Starting from this premise, we intend to investigate and analyze the interrogation of child and adolescent victims of sexual abuse from the viewpoint of members of the justice system, contextualized in ceremonial processes and the forensic environment, with a specific focus on the traditional interrogation style used by the judge. A ecologia do desenvolvimento humano: experimentos naturais e planejados. We felt that an analysis from the perspective of the justice system required a more relativist approach, considering the nature of the context, since the crucial argument is that development can only be understood within its historic, cultural and interpersonal context; references belonging to the subjective characteristics of the person alone are not sufficient.
The theory considers the complex relationships between the developing person and the contexts in which they are situated, described in four nuclei of the ecological system: person- biological, physical and psychological characteristics in interaction with the setting; process — interpretation of experiences, interactions and the setting in which they develop; context — contextual systems; time — the chronosystem relating to the person and their proximal processes which progress with time, and the passage of time in the historic context.
We believe this study to be relevant to the field of health, given the direct implication of the damage caused by sexual abuse on the physical and mental health of children and adolescents, as well as the importance of interventions and further legal initiatives for reducing abuse and protecting of victims. Such understanding is urgently required to gain funding for care and support for victims.
In this sense, health and legal actions work in tangent. Method Regarding methodology, we adopted a qualitative approach that, among other objectives, sought to understand the cultural values and understandings of groups, institutions and individuals around their historic contexts and specific themes Minayo, MINAYO, M.
We received written authorization for our research from the senior management of the two districts who provided us with a list of judges. From these, 15 judges were randomly selected for interview initially, a number which could later be increased if necessary.
Of those selected, 12 agreed to participate in the research by signing an informed consent form.
Based on the initial reading of the testimonies of those interviewed, we observed a repetition of information and considered that there was sufficient material to address the research questions. Four are female and eight are male, aged between 35 and Three of them have at least one post-graduate qualifications.
Two perform a combination of coordination, management and electoral judge roles. To collect the data we used semi-structured interviews and free observation. Each of the research participants was interviewed for between 40 and 50 minutes between February and May Free observation was used as a complementary technique upon the arrival of the child or adolescent, their respective families, and their defense lawyer, during the interrogation performed by the judge in the forensic space, and during their exit from the environment.
It contains three tables, one on a raised platform above the ground belonging to the judge, with a chair, computer and a visible camera for filming; to the side of this is a smaller table with a chair and computer which belong to the clerk; and below this a table surrounded by eight chairs, plus one placed to the side. Records were kept in a field diary, which aided description and analysis.
The interview reports and contents of the free observations were classified by the letter J, followed by ordinal and sequential numbering. Using this technique, we followed the following analytic-interpretative process: a comprehensive reading of testimonies using interview transcripts; b identification of central ideas of the testimonies; c interpretation of the central underlying meanings behind these ideas; d comparison between these ideas and underlying meanings; e definition of themes that enable a discussion of the results.
The reports in the field diary from the free observations were used to put the discussion in context for each theme, enabling the classification and general understanding of the testimonies. We categorized the data by classifying the elements of each set, through differentiation and then by regrouping according to genre, using the criteria previously defined. The resulting categories enabled us to establish rubrics that group together elements registration units, in the case of content analysis under generic headings, which we grouped according to common characteristics.
The analysis was not limited to vocabulary, lexis, semantic repertoire or theme. It also explored underlying organizational principles, relationship systems, management strategies, rules surrounding chain processes, exclusion, equality of organized members, and meaningful words or elements and figures of speech, finding relationships between these elements symbols or meanings.
Results and discussion The categories for analysis which emerged from our research highlighted that the technical preparation given to judges for interpreting the law is not sufficient, faced by the issues in the current social context, given that the judge must share the rationale behind their decision with other members of society before making a final decision.
Our findings show symbolic structures which, if considered in the current context, raise the need to overcome the traditional technique currently used that operationalizes procedures in a coordinated way using a systematized and permanent regulatory structure. The legal model which that stands out is categorized by the centralization of power at state level, formal rationality and legal thinking that abandons substantive justification and is based only on formal considerations and personal opinion.
In the interviews of the participating judges, questions emerge regarding legal practices with varied significance, in a wide range of circumstances, producing the results outlined below. The participants point out that there is not sufficient technical training for interpreting the law, faced by the issues in the current social context, given that before making the final decision they must share the rationale behind their decision with other members of society.
The identification of the interrogation techniques used with child and adolescent victims of sexual abuse and their respective concepts, classification and typification, shows a system with selective and inconsistent processes, and behaviors which are supported by juridical positivism. The ideas of the judges in question are based on legal dogma which does not allow for structural changes to operations and processes, which when interrogating child victims of sexual abuse, can lead to their re-victimization.
This rationality does not reject the traditional dogma, encouraging the idea that the system is linked to reality and to the construction of a new theoretical-critical model. Thus, the judges align themselves with common sense and are reluctant to accept criticisms of the decision-making institution, namely the Court of Justice.
Content and quality standards do not meet the requirements of a regulatory institution which, serving society, must provide appropriate responses to its users.
It is therefore necessary to make use of theoretical research and material practice to legitimize the development of a more organic, logical and consistent critical discourse. A hierarchy of objectives can be observed, based on concerns about the need for correct adversarial procedure and a full legal defense. Revista dos Tribunais, Therefore, the principle of equality of both parties exists in all democratic systems in which human rights include guarantees and legal defense.
As the guiding principle in all jurisdictional functions, the right to an adversarial procedure joins the right to legal defense, forming part of the basic rights of the individual under the Democratic Rule of Law. The participants state that the various processes that judges must follow, and the time available for them, sometimes make direct, frank, objective, coherent and even reliable dialogue with the victim unviable.
In the court setting, they consider the importance of interrogating children and adolescents, finding inherent difficulties in the act of interrogating during hearings, debates or trials, referring to the fact that they do not know what terminology to use during the proceedings.
The judges report that they try to use vocabulary and terms that they remember from their childhoods, codified in specific vocabulary used in childhood to describe sexual organs and acts involving sexuality.
I realize that it is very difficult to make myself understood by the victim, I have tried using vocabulary that I remember from my childhood, childlike even, I feel immensely uncomfortable J2.
As judges, we sit an exam, but we do not receive specific training for testimonies, most importantly those involving children, so in one way or another we have to improvise, using life experience, less formally, but I feel ill-prepared J3.